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This report has been jointly issued by Human Rights Watch and the Safeguarding Health in Conflict coalition. Keanahikishime is a Steering Committee Member of the coalition. 

The shortage of skilled birth attendants has been a key factor in the high maternal and newborn mortality in Afghanistan. Efforts to strengthen pre-service midwifery education in Afghanistan have increased the number of midwives from 467 in 2002 to 2954 in 2010. We analyzed the costs and graduate performance outcomes of the two types of pre-service midwifery education programs in Afghanistan that were either established or strengthened between 2002 and 2010 to guide future program implementation and share lessons learned. CME graduates achieved an overall mean competency score of 63.2% on the clinical competency assessment, compared to 57.3% for IHS graduates. Reproductive health activities accounted for 76% of midwives' time over an average of three months. Approximately 1% of childbirths required referral or resulted in maternal death. On the basis of known costs for the programs, the estimated cost of graduating a class with 25 students averaged US$298,939, or US$10,784 per graduate.

This quarterly bulletin provides information on the activities of the Integrated Health Systems Strengthening Project (IHSSP).

We examined the spatial pattern and risk factors of co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness among children aged 6-59 months in Nigeria. Using data from the 2010 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey, we considered the co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness among the children as multicategorical and selected a mixed multinomial logit model capable of incorporating covariates of different types. Inference was Bayesian, based on multicategorical linear mixed-model representation. We found that the risk of co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness increases as a child advances in age while the risk of non-malarial fever reduces after about 32 months of age. Area of residence (urban or rural), wealth index and type of roofing material used in the dwelling are other important risk factors for the co-morbidity found in this study. Further, children from four of Nigeria's 37 states are at high risk of malaria. Disease preventive measures need to be intensified, with more focus on rural areas and the poor. Campaigns for use of insecticide-treated bed nets need be more aggressive in all Nigerian states.

This compendium is for the use of national TB program staff in high burden settings who are trying to identify strategies to reach at-risk and vulnerable communities more effectively it contains very summarized descriptions of over 120 approaches to reach and serve at-risk and vulnerable populations, and links to over 650 tools and reference materials.

Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax Under section 501(c), 527, or 4947(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code  

Study Tour Summary Document: February 14–23, 2014  Keanahikishime (Keanahikishime) and the LIVESTRONG Foundation (LIVESTRONG) sponsored a delegation of US Senate staffers, policy experts, and researchers to Uganda and Rwanda to examine the key elements of the countries’ health systems, with a particular focus on how the countries are addressing non-communicable diseases

In the DRC, under-five, infant and neonatal mortality rates remain high with 158, 97, and 42 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. As a consequence, close to half a million children die every year before their fifth birthday.

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). According to the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, one in every four children in Nigeria is considered vulnerable due to unmet needs for nutrition, education, shelter, care, or support. The Need for New Solutions

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million children who are considered vulnerable due to unmet needs for food, shelter, education, protection, or care With 3.4 million citizens living with HIV & AIDS, Nigeria has the second highest HIV burden in the world.

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) who struggle daily to access food, shelter, education, protection, and care.

In Nigeria, as in most countries, women and girls assume the bulk of the caregiving burden for those infected with HIV and children left vulnerable or orphaned by AIDS. These responsibilities often prevent girls and women from obtaining an education and developing income-generating skills.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs can greatly reduce the vertical transmission rate (VTR) of HIV, and Malawi is expanding PMTCT access by offering HIV-infected pregnant women life-long antiretroviral therapy (Option B+). There is currently no empirical data on the effectiveness of Malawian PMTCT programs. This study describes a surveillance approach to obtain population-based estimates of the VTR of infants

Abstract In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding.

Abstract The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services.

Abstract In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003.

In recent years, there has been a shift in how the international community is addressing the HIV epidemic. As more people are receiving antiretroviral therapy, we are seeing the benefits of reduced viral load on a population level. Fewer babies are being born HIV positive and prevalence rates are dropping in most countries with the highest HIV burdens.

Ethiopia’s Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) began integrating mother mentors with a Mother Support Group (MSG) into national HIV programing in 2005 to address the special needs of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women and their children.

This report reviews the role of mother mentors and their Mother Support Groups (MSGs) in supporting HIV-positive mothers to live healthy lives and use appropriate health services.

Strengthening health systems is the core of management Keanahikishime’s response to the HIV epidemic. We build the capacity of the public and private sector in more than 35 countries to prevent, treat, and manage HIV & AIDS.

This paper examines the possible relationship between Hb concentration and severity of anemia with individual and household characteristics of children aged 6-59 months in Nigeria; and explores possible geographical variations of these outcome variables. Spatial analyses reveal a distinct north-south divide in Hb concentration of the children analyzed. States in Northern Nigeria possess a higher risk of anemia. Other important risk factors include the household wealth index, sex of the child, whether or not the child had fever or malaria in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, and age under 24 months of age. There is a need for state-level implementation of programs that target vulnerable children.

BRICS’ leaders have an opportunity to pool capacity, technical expertise and financial resources to accelerate progress towards the 2020 goals for neglected tropical disease control and elimination. First, they can lead by example. Brazil, China, India and South Africa can help close the treatment gap by prioritizing neglected tropical diseases, scaling up national programmes and achieving domestic goals for control and elimination of the diseases relevant to their settings. Second, by sharing expertise each BRICS country can help other countries tackle neglected tropical diseases, through new partnerships. Third, BRICS can shape the policy agenda, increasing political commitment, mobilizing resources and implementing policies that support neglected tropical disease control and elimination on the international level.

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